4-H Youth Development Program
4-H Youth Development Program
4-H Youth Development Program
University of California
4-H Youth Development Program

4-H Publications

To support the research and evaluation mission, the 4-H program extends knowledge by providing education on research-based knowledge of children, youth, families, and communities, and by publishing monographs, reports, fact sheets, and abstracts of research. The 4-H program also provides training on applied research and program evaluation. The target audience for education and training efforts conducted by the 4-H program is UC Cooperative Extension Youth Development Advisors.

Advances in Youth Development (New Book Publication)

Subramaniam, A., Heck, K., Carlos, R. & Junge, S. (Eds.). (2011). Advances in youth development: Research and evaluation from the University of California Cooperative Extension (2001 - 2010). University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources.

This is an edited compilation of articles featuring the outcomes of research and program evaluation in the past decade in California 4-H. The topics represented in this volume include health and healthy living, citizenship, leadership, life skills, and science education, and volunteer and staff development pertaining to these areas.

Advances in Youth Development (Full Text pdf)

Click on the subsequent links to individual chapters.

Introduction (includes Foreword, Table of Contents and List of Contributors)

Chapter 1:Overweight and Self-Perceptions of African American Children

Chapter 2: Driving among Urban, Suburban and Rural Youth in California

Chapter 3: Trying Hard: An Investigation of Youth Engagement and Voice   in Community Programs.

Chapter 4: A Safe Place to Learn and Grow: Fostering Youth Social Skills in Afterschool Programs

Chapter 5: Teens as Teachers Enhance Environmental Education and Personal Skills through Service Learning

Chapter 6: Developing Afterschool Programs for Teens: 4-H Bloco Drum and Dance

Chapter 7: Extending Science Education with Engineering and Technology: Junk Drawer Robotics Curriculum

Chapter 8: Insights from an Evaluation of a Healthy Living Project

Chapter 9: Professional Development Increases Afterschool Staff's Confidence and Competence in Delivering Science, Engineering and Technology

Chapter 10: Moving beyond the Demonstration Model: The Importance of Experiential Learning in the 4-H Youth Development Program.

Chapter 11: Volunteer Leader Development - Digest and Modules


This series includes in depth literature reviews of current issues in youth development.

Winter 2012: History of Science Education in 4-H - Steven Worker

Spring 2010: The Step-It-Up-2-Thrive Theory of Change - Katherine Heck, Aarti Subramaniam, & Ramona Carlos

Winter 2009: Youth Development Frameworks - Katherine Heck & Aarti Subramaniam

Spring 2008: Social Capital and Implications for Positive Youth Development - Richard Enfield

Spring 2006: Adolescents and Driving: Factors Influencing Behavior - Katherine Heck & Ramona Carlos

Winter 2006: Soldiers of the Soil: A Historical Review of the United States School Garden Army - Rose Hayden-Smith

Fall 2004: Clarifying the World of Work for Our Youth: Vocations, Careers, and Jobs - Brenda Bryant, Anisa Zvonkovic, Juliana Raskauskas, & Cheryl Peters

Summer 2002: Garden-Based Learning in Basic Education: A Historical Review - Aarti Subramaniam

Fall 2001: Youth Civic Engagement: Membership and Mattering in Local Communities - Constance Flanagan & Beth Van Horn

Summer 2001: The Developmental Benefits of Nonformal Education and Youth Development - Steven Russell

Spring 2001: Applying Resilience Theory to the Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse - Marc Braverman

Winter 2001: Connections Between 4-H and John Dewey's Philosophy of Education - Richard Enfield

Spring 2000: Organizing Head, Heart, Hands and Health for Larger Service - Scott Peters

Fall 1999: Disordered Eating Patterns Among Adolescents - Marilyn Townsend

Spring 1999: Community Collaborations - Bernadette Sangalang

Winter 1999: Education Beyond the Walls - Marian McKenna

Fall 1998: Experiential Education for Youth Development - Rebecca Carver

Summer 1998: The Greying of Rural America - Diane Gilmer, Carolyn Aldwin, & Beth Ober

Spring 1998: Resiliency and Assets: Understanding the Ecology of Youth Development - Ramona Carlos & Richard Enfield

Fall 1997: Recruiting and Retaining Volunteers - Ella Madsen

Fall 1997: Fifth Dimension and 4-H: Complementary Goals and Strategies - Katherine Brown & Michael Cole

Summer 1997: The Education Community and the Economy - Richard Ponzio & Robert Weisskirch

Spring 1997: Curriculum Development for Nonformal Education - Anna Otto

Winter 1997: The Biology of Adolescence - Sally Stanley

Fall 1996: Understanding Adolescents' Ethical Behavior - Ramona Carlos

Summer 1996: The Value of Failure in Middle Childhood - Brenda Bryant

Spring 1996: Youth Violence - Laurel Dean & Randall Brown

Winter 1996: Elements of Effective Community-based Youth Programs - Ella Madsen

Fact Sheets (2009)

The fact sheets below include data that were drawn from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development.

Fact sheet on risk behaviors

Fact sheet on SET

Fact sheet on positive youth development

Fact sheet on civic engagement


Fall 2009: CYD SPECIAL REPORT PLP Year 2. This special report describes the results of an evaluation of a pilot plan for implementing a new staffing structure within UCCE and the 4-H Youth Development Program statewide.

Fall 2009: Youth in Governance and Youth Adult Partnerships: An Examination of Promising Practices. This special report describes the results of a study on youth in governance prevalence and opportunities within the 4-H program.

Fall 2009: 4-H Study of Youth Development: Report of California's 2008 data.  This report describes the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development and provides information about youth in 4-H in California and how they compare with other young people.

Winter 2008: 4-H Staff Professional Development: Identifying Training Needs Across the State This report describes the results of the Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies survey among youth development staff members.

Summer 2006: 4-H Center for Youth Development Needs Assessment Report describing staff needs.

Summer 2003: The Role of Cross-age Teaching in Supporting Adolescent Development - Shelley Murdock, Faye Lee, Carole Paterson

Summer 2003: The FARMS Leadership Program: A preliminary evaluation of an experiential education program for high school youth - Ramona Carlos

Winter 2003: Promoting Innovative Youth Development Programs for High-Risk Audiences: The California CYFAR Project - Marc Braverman, Robyn Caruso, Jeannette George, Faye Lee, Michael Marzolla

Special Reports

2004: Safe Place to Learn : Consequences of harassment based on actual or perceived sexual orientation and gender non-conformity and steps for making schools safer - Molly O'Shaughnessy, Stephen Russell, Katherine Heck, Christopher Calhoun, Carolyn Laub

2004: Safe Place to Learn Fact Sheet

2004: California's Rural Youth - Katherine Heck, John Borba, Ramona Carlos, Ken Churches, Susan Donohue, Arlene Fuller

2003: Garden Based Learning : Considering assessment from a learner-centered approach - Aarti Subramaniam

2003: Trends in 4-H Enrollment, California - Katherine Heck

Research You May Have Missed (RYMHM) provides a summary of recent research on topics of interest to youth development professionals.

Fall 2010: Healthy living
RYMHM Fall 2010

Spring 2010: Spiritual growth and character
RYMHM Spring 2010

Fall 2009: Motivation
RYMHM Fall 2009

Spring/Summer 2009: Informal science programs
RYMHM Spring Summer 2009

Winter 2009: Retention in youth development programming
RYMHM Winter 2009

Fall 2008: Cultural competence
RYMHM Winter 2009

Summer 2008: Science education
RYMHM Summer 2008

Spring 2008: Civic engagement
RYMHM Spring 2008

Winter 2008: Outcome evaluation
RYMHM Winter 2008

Fall 2007: Volunteers
RYMHM Fall 2007

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